Volvo 850 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

8 Feb 2015 | Author: | Comments Off on Volvo 850 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Volvo 850

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Overview [ edit ]

The Volvo 850 was introduced worldwide as a 1992 model, but arrived in the United States in the 1993 model year. It was sold as a saloon (sedan) with an estate (wagon) model on sale from 1992 in Europe. The 850 was the first Volvo model in North America to feature front-wheel drive and an all-aluminium alloy 20-valve straight-five engine. The 850 was Volvo’s top-seller in the mid-1990s.

In markets outside the U.S. a 10-valve variant of the five-cylinder was popular for its lower cost and better fuel economy.

Volvo 850 SE 2.5 sedan (Australia)

The 850 saloon features an interior space of 2.80 cubic metres (99#160;cu#160;ft). This is slightly more than the 2.78 cubic metres (98#160;cu#160;ft) of the 2004 Mercedes-Benz E-Class. even though the car is reasonably compact on the outside. This space is achieved by mounting the in-line 5-cylinder engine transversely (from the left to the right of the car) under the hood.

The 850 T5 is capable of top speeds in excess of 250 kilometres per hour (155#160;mph) when ungoverned. Production models of the estate and saloon have been tested to maximum speeds of 147#160;mph.

In 1995, a limited-edition version, labeled T-5R, was sold worldwide.

From 1996-1998, a high-end model, the R, was produced. It was based on the aforementioned T-5R.

In 1996 a Platinum edition of the 850 Turbo was available. The exterior paint for these models came in a metallic pearl platinum-colour and had special 16#160;inch alloy wheels. The interior was fitted with leather seats and burled walnut accents. Only 1,500 of these were imported for the U.S. market. [ 1 ]

For the last model year (1996/1997), the 850 AWD (All Wheel Drive) model was introduced with a new 193#160;bhp (144#160;kW; 196#160;PS) low pressure turbo 2.4#160;litre engine (B5254T).

In 1998, the model line was updated, and renamed the Volvo S70 sedan and Volvo V70 station wagon. These vehicles were sold in the U.S. through the 2000 model year when there were still many 850s waiting to be sold. This allowed for an alternatively designed vehicle; the 2001 Volvo S60 and Volvo V70. during the 850’s production hiatus.

Rear suspension [ edit ]

For the 850, Volvo created what it called Delta-link semi-independent rear suspension. Volvo held a U.S. patent for rear axle bushings that compress under load, giving the Volvo 850 passive rear steering. The automobile also has a tight turning circle, 10.2#160;m (33.5#160;ft), and is considered very maneuverable.

By comparison, later large Volvos had a 11.9#160;m (39.0#160;ft) turning circle.

T-5R [ edit ]

Volvo 850 T-5R at the Volvo Museum

In 1995, a high performance model, developed in part with Porsche, was released and designated the T-5R. The vehicle was based on the 850 Turbo, utilizing the B5234T3 engine with a special ECU (Bosch #628) that added an additional 2#160;psi (0.1#160;bar) of turbocharger boost pressure, [ 2 ] giving the engine an extra 18#160;hp (13#160;kW; 18#160;PS) for a total of 243#160;hp (181#160;kW) and 221#160;lb·ft (300#160;N·m) of torque. The engine was mated to a 4-speed automatic transmission.

The T-5R was renowned as a sleeper car; despite its boxy, understated appearance, it boasted a drag coefficient of 0.29 and was capable of accelerating from 0 to 60#160;mph (97#160;km/h) in 5.8 – 6.0 seconds (depending on transmission and body type). The top speed was electronically limited to 155#160;mph (249#160;km/h).

The vehicle came standard with Pirelli P-Zero tires, providing lateral grip of 0.88 g. The engine tuning was co-developed with Porsche, as was the transmission and other powertrain components. Porsche also aided in designing some of the interior, such as the Alcantara seat inserts. Only two options were available, a trunk-mounted Alpine 6-CD changer and no-cost 16 wheels for a smoother, more comfortable ride and driveability in snow when using all-season tires.

Also included in the 1995 T-5R package was a front bumper with a lip, rear spoiler, side skirts, polished aluminum door sills, special graphite leather and Alcantara seats, and a black interior with deep walnut wood grain accents. Both yellow and black versions came with the same black interior as the only choice. The T-5R has an additional badge to the left of the 850 on the trunk, referred to as The Motorsport badge. The standard road wheel was the titanium-gray 5-spoke 17×7 Titan.

1995 was the only year that the a model was badged as a T-5R; the following year, as Volvo recognized the vehicle’s popularity, the model was renewed with the designation 850R.

The Volvo 850 T-5R was also noted for its safety features. It was the first automobile to be fitted standard with four airbags. [ citation needed ] The side airbags were installed in the seat cushions. The side airbags were integrated into the rest of the Volvo model line the following year as an option, and became standard a year after that; other manufacturers soon followed suit. The car was also fitted with an early example of daytime running lamps.

It was also the first sedan to have three-point seatbelts at all five seating positions (previously, cars had only a lap belt for the center rear seat). The T-5R also used the OBDII diagnostics system, a year before OBDII was made an automotive standard.

5500 T-5Rs were produced worldwide, of which 185 went to the United States. The 1995 850 T-5R was limited in exterior paint color choices:

Cream yellow – 1975 worldwide including saloon and station wagon

Black – 3025 worldwide including saloon and station wagon

Emerald green metallic – 0500 worldwide including saloon and station wagon

850 R [ edit ]

Volvo 850 R in Torslanda, Sweden.

In 1996 Volvo introduced a new high performance Volvo 850 as a replacement for the hugely successful limited edition T-5R. Volvo decided there should be no direct successor to the T5-R, but due to its huge hand in improving Volvo’s image and the big sales success Volvo decided to develop a new high performance model. The new car should be based on the T-5R but with some improvements.

The new car was called the Volvo 850 R which again came as either a sedan or Sport Wagon. In 5-door form, the turbocharged station wagon can accelerate from 0-62#160;mph in 6.7/7.5 (manual/auto) seconds and reach up to 158#160;mph (254#160;km/h). [ citation needed ]

Production of the 850 R ran between 1996-1997 (the final year of the 850) and unlike the T5-R was not limited. Various Volvo sources estimate between 5000-7000 of all 850 R variants were produced and sold worldwide.

The only colours available were Bright Red, Black Stone, Dark Grey Pearl, Dark Olive Pearl, Turquoise Pearl and Polar White. In the US market only Bright Red, Polar White and Black Stone were available. Cream yellow was discontinued for the 850 R. The saloon featured a newly designed rear spoiler.

Spoiler was now standard on the estate. The interior upgrades include more heavily bolstered bucket style front seats (alcantara centres with leather side bolsters), alcantara door cards, 2-tone leather steering wheel, stainless steel ‘850’ kick plates and R branded over mats. A 200w amplifier was also added to the 8-speaker audio system as was the option to have an SC-805/815 in-dash CD player (some markets).

There were 2 choices of colour for the 850 R interior:

Graphite grey leather with dark alcantara suede seat and door inserts, burled black walnut wood trim on instrument panel and floor console with Graphite carpeting/interior plastics. Additional Light Grey leather gearknob, seat piping and steering wheel insert.

Ivory/very light brown leather with beige alcantara suede seat and door inserts, Scandinavian light birch wood trim with light brown carpets with beige/ivory interior plastics. Steering wheel insert, handbrake handle and gearknob finished in beige leather.

For a limited time in 1996, Volvo offered a new heavy duty manual transmission designed specifically for the 850 R (excluding US market), called the M59, which featured both a viscous coupling and a Torsen differential. Furthermore, the M59 equipped cars were fitted with the B5234T4 2.3-litre 5-cylinder engine featuring a larger TD04HL-16T turbo, re-designed manifold intercooler, unique ecu + motronic 4.4. uprated fuel pressure sensor and a heavy duty clutch. These modifications enabled the manual(M59)cars to produce 250#160;hp (190#160;kW) and 350#160;N·m (260#160;lb·ft) versus 240#160;hp (180#160;kW) and 300#160;N·m (220#160;lb·ft) for the automatic transmission.

Further changes for the 850 R over the T-5R were made to the suspension:

20mm front and 19.5mm rear anti-rollbars(21mm 20mm on T5-R)

Stiffer damper settings

7×17 7-spoke heavy duty volan alloy wheels

Viscous coupling with Torsen differential (M59 manual gearbox)

Some European spec cars had a 302mm brake upgrade as standard.

Due to encumbrances placed on engine volume by the Italian government, 850 Rs sold in Italy were based on the 2.0 litre 850 Turbo. The transmission was the standard AW/50-42 used in all U.S. 850s, the M56H being available in other countries..

Trim levels in United States [ edit ]

1993 [ edit ]

850 GLT: 2.4#160;L I5. 168#160;hp (125#160;kW ) @ 6300#160;rpm and 162#160;lb·ft (220#160;N·m ) @ 4500#160;rpm

All 1993 850 models were badged GLT, regardless of equipment. Many options (leather, sunroof, and more) were bundled into the Touring package.

1994 [ edit ]

1995 [ edit ]

The GLT badge returned for the 1995 model year, so there were now sedan and wagon versions of the 850, 850 GLT, 850 Turbo, and 850 T-5R. The T-5R was the new high performance model, with more power stemming from ECU tuning, and special suspension, trim and wheels. In addition to the introduction of the T-5R, changes included new tail-lights for sedans, optional side airbags for all variants, new interior switch-gear design and several other detail changes.

Australian delivered 850 SEs were provided with the B5252 10 valve motor, which was labelled DOHC on the cam cover.

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