Toyota RAV4 EV – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

25 Aug 2014 | Author: | Comments Off on Toyota RAV4 EV – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Toyota RAV4


The first generation was leased from 1997 to 2003, and at the lessees’ request, many units were sold after the vehicle was discontinued. [ 1 ] A total of 1,484 were leased and/or sold in California to meet the state’s mandate for Zero-emissions vehicle. [ 2 ] As of mid-2012, there were almost 500 units still in use. [ 3 ]

First generation [ edit ]


64.4#160;in (1,636#160;mm)

The first fleet version of the RAV4 EV became available on a limited basis in 1997. In 2001 it was possible for businesses, cities or utilities to lease one or two of these cars. Toyota then actually sold or leased 328 RAV4 EVs to the general public in 2003, at which time the program was terminated despite waiting lists of prospective customers.

The RAV4 EV closely resembles the regular internal combustion engine (ICE) version – without a tailpipe – and has a governed top speed of 78#160;mph (

126#160;km/h) with a range of 100 to 120 miles (160#160;to#160;190#160;km). The 95 amp-hour NiMH battery pack has a capacity of 27 kWh. charges inductively and has proven to be surprisingly durable. Some RAV4 EVs have achieved over 150,000 miles (240,000#160;km) on the original battery pack.

It was also one of the few vehicles with a single speed automatic transmission at that time.

Besides the batteries, controller and motor, the remaining systems in the RAV4 EV are comparable to the gasoline-powered RAV4, such as power brakes. power steering. air conditioning. tire wear and suspension components except for the power sources involved. The power brakes use an electric pump to provide vacuum instead of deriving vacuum from the engine manifold while the power steering and air conditioning systems use electric motors instead of mechanical energy delivered by fan belts. The passenger compartment is heated electrically.

Performance [ edit ]

The RAV4 EV has a governed top speed of 78 miles per hour (126#160;km/h), a tested 0-60 time of around 18 seconds (depending on state-of-charge on the batteries) and a range of 80 to 120 miles (130 to 190#160;km). Mileage depends on the same factors as a traditional gasoline-powered vehicle, mainly rolling resistance and average speed (aerodynamic drag ).

The RAV4 EV has 24 12-volt 95Ah NiMH batteries capable of storing 27.4 kWh of energy.

Charging [ edit ]

The RAV4 EV’s batteries can be recharged from being fully depleted to fully charged in about five hours, and are monitored with a passive battery balancing system. Electricity is supplied via a Magne Charge inductive charging paddle [ 7 ] from a wall-mounted 6000-Watt charging unit on a 220 volt, 30 amp, North American clothes dryer-type plug. Some earlier RAV4 EV prototypes were charged via a front fender conductive charger coupling made by Yazaki Corporation.

Mileage costs [ edit ]

As of May 2006, charging a RAV4 EV from full-dead to full-charge, at a rate of US$0.09 per kilowatt-hour, costs around US$2.70. As of May 2008, based on a gasoline price-per-gallon cost of US$3.80 and up and the non-EV 2003 RAV4 2-wheel-drive gasoline fuel efficiency of 27#160;mpg -US (8.7#160;L/100#160;km; 32#160;mpg -imp ), the RAV4 EV costs approximately 20% as much on a per mile basis, and makes mileage in the RAV4 EV the cost equivalent to a 111.1#160;mpg -US (2.117#160;L/100#160;km; 133.4#160;mpg -imp ) small SUV.

In addition, the RAV4 EV has a charge timer built into the dashboard that enables the vehicle to start charging at a specific time. As the RAV4 EV easily becomes the main cost of electricity in an average-sized home, this enables the owner to use a Time-Of-Day Meter to reduce electricity costs. This configuration is a standard practice with RAV4 EV owners.

The price of electricity at night depends on the carrier, but is usually in the range of 60% of the normal rate. In the use of charging the RAV4 EV, this equates to a cheaper cost-per-mile, roughly equivalent to a vehicle capable of 166.6#160;mpg -US (1.412#160;L/100#160;km; 200.1#160;mpg -imp ), based on a price of US$3.00 per gallon.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency listed mileage ratings for the RAV4 EV in its yearly Fuel Economy Guide from 2000 through 2003. The 2003 model recorded city mileage equivalent to 125#160;mpg -US (1.88#160;L/100#160;km; 150#160;mpg -imp ), and 100#160;mpg -US (2.4#160;L/100#160;km; 120#160;mpg -imp ) on the highway. Estimated combined mileage was 112#160;mpg -US (2.10#160;L/100#160;km; 135#160;mpg -imp ).

Consumable items [ edit ]

The RAV4 EV’s battery system is a consumable item. Toyota reports that battery pack replacement costs are currently higher than the value of the used vehicle. [ 8 ] Toyota tested the RAV4 EV in Japan for 300,000 miles (480,000#160;km) over two years before introducing the vehicle in the United States. The economies of scale are affecting the replacement cost of the RAV4 EV.

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