The 13’th CII NID Design Summit was inaugurated today by Mr. Jamshyd Godrej, Chairman & MD, Godrej &…

1 Jul 2014 | Author: | Comments Off on The 13’th CII NID Design Summit was inaugurated today by Mr. Jamshyd Godrej, Chairman & MD, Godrej &…
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Design, when to fashion. includes considering as well as function in the final

Design as a noun informally to a plan or convention for the construction of an or a system (as in architectural blueprints. drawing. business process. diagrams and sewing patterns ) to design (verb) refers to this plan. [ 1 ] No generally-accepted of design exists, [ 2 ] and the term has connotations in different fields design disciplines below). one can also design by directly an object (as in pottery. engineering. cowboy coding and graphic ).

More formally design has defined as follows.

(noun) a of an object. manifested by an agent. to accomplish goals. in a particular using a set of primitive components, a set of requirements. subject to constraints; transitive) to create a design, in an (where the designer operates) [ 3 ]

definition for design is a roadmap or a approach for someone to achieve a expectation. It defines the specifications, parameters, costs, activities, and how and what to do within legal, social, environmental, safety and constraints in achieving that [ 4 ]

Here, a specification can be manifested as a plan or a finished product, and are the elements from which the object is composed.

With a broad denotation, there is no language or unifying institution for of all disciplines. This allows for differing philosophies and approaches the subject (see Philosophies and of design. below).

The person is called a designer . which is a term used for people who professionally in one of the various design usually also specifying area is being dealt (such as a fashion designer . designer or web designer ). A designer’s of activities is called a design The scientific study of design is design science. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ]

Designing necessitates considering the aesthetic. economic and sociopolitical dimensions of the design object and design It may involve considerable research. modeling. interactive adjustment. and [ 8 ] Meanwhile, diverse kinds of may be designed, including clothing. user interfaces. skyscrapers. identities. business processes and methods of designing. [ 9 ]


Design as a process

Substantial disagreement exists how designers in many fields, amateur or professional, alone or in produce designs. Dorst and argued that there are ways of describing design and discussed two basic and fundamentally ways, [ 10 ] both of which several names. The prevailing has been called The Rational [ 11 ] Technical Problem Solving [ 12 ] and The Perspective. [ 13 ] The alternative view has called Reflection-in-Action, [ 12 ] co-evolution [ 14 ] and The Perspective. [ 13 ]

The Rational Model

The Rational Model was independently by Simon [ 15 ] and Pahl and Beitz. [ 16 ] It that:

designers attempt to optimize a candidate for known constraints and ,

the design process is plan-driven,

the process is understood in terms of a sequence of stages.

The Rational is based on a rationalist philosophy [ 11 ] and the Waterfall Model. [ 17 ] Systems Life Cycle [ 18 ] and much of the design literature. [ 19 ] According to the philosophy, design is informed by and knowledge in a predictable and controlled Technical rationality is at the center of the [ 8 ]

Typical stages consistent The Rational Model include the

Pre-production design

Design or Parti pris – an early the beginning) statement of design

Analysis – analysis of current goals

Research – investigating design solutions in the field or topics

Specification – specifying of a design solution for a product design specification ) [ 20 ] or service.

Problem solving – conceptualizing and design solutions

Presentation – design solutions

Design production

Development – continuation and of a designed solution

Testing – in testing a designed solution

design feedback for future

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Implementation – introducing the designed into the environment

Evaluation and – summary of process and results, constructive criticism and suggestions for improvements

Redesign – any or all stages in the process repeated (with made) at any time before, or after production.

The Rational has been widely criticized on two grounds

Designers do not work way – extensive empirical evidence has that designers do not act as the rational suggests. [ 22 ]

Unrealistic assumptions – are often unknown when a project begins, and the requirements and continue to change. [ 23 ]

The Action-Centric [link]

The Action-Centric Perspective is a given to a collection of interrelated which are antithetical to The Rational [ 13 ] It posits that:

designers use creativity and emotion to design candidates,

the design is improvised ,

no universal sequence of is apparent – analysis, design and are contemporary and inextricably linked [ 13 ]

The Perspective is a based on an empiricist and broadly consistent with the approach [ 24 ] and amethodical development. [ 25 ] empirical evidence supports the of this perspective in describing the of real designers. [ 22 ] Like the Model, the Action-Centric model design as informed by research and However, research and knowledge are into the design process the judgment and common sense of – by designers thinking on their – more than through the and controlled process stipulated by the Model. Designers’ context-dependent and professional judgment take stage more than rationality. [ 8 ]

At least two views of activity are consistent with the Perspective. Both involve basic activities.

In the Reflection-in-Action paradigm, designers between framing, making and evaluate moves. Framing to conceptualizing the problem, i.e. goals and objectives. A move is a design decision. The evaluation may lead to further moves in the [ 12 ]

In the Sensemaking-Coevolution-Implementation Framework, designers between its three titular Sensemaking includes both and evaluating moves. Implementation is the of constructing the design object. is the process where the design simultaneously refines its mental of the design object based on its picture of the context, and vice [ 26 ]

As this perspective is relatively it has not yet encountered much criticism. One criticism is that it is less than The Rational Model.

disciplines [link]

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