South Island – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

28 Apr 2015 | Author: | Comments Off on South Island – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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South Island

The South Island or Te Waipounamu is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand. the other being the more populous North Island. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait. to the west by the Tasman Sea. to the south and east by the Pacific Ocean. The South Island covers 150,437 square kilometres (58,084#160;sq#160;mi) [ 1 ] and is influenced by a temperate climate .

History [ edit ]

Pre-history [ edit ]

Charcoal drawings can be found on limestone rock shelters in the centre of the South Island, with over 500 sites [ 3 ] stretching from Kaikoura to North Otago. The drawings are estimated to be between 500 and 800 years old, and portray animals, people and fantastic creatures, possibly stylised reptiles. [ 4 ] Some of the birds pictured are long extinct, including moa and Haast’s eagles. They were drawn by early Māori, but by the time Europeans arrived, local Māori did not know the origins of the drawings. [ 5 ]

Classical Māori period [ edit ]

Early inhabitants of the South Island were the Waitaha. They were largely absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāti Mamoe in the 16th century. [ citation needed ]

Ngāti Mamoe were in turn largely absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Ngāi Tahu who migrated south in the 17th century. [ 6 ] While today there is no distinct Ngati Mamoe organisation, many Ngai Tahu have Ngati Mamoe links in their whakapapa and, especially in the far south of the island.

Around the same time a group of Māori migrated to Rekohu (the Chatham Islands ), where, by adapting to the local climate and the availability of resources, they developed a culture known as Moriori — related to but distinct from Māori culture in mainland New Zealand. A notable feature of the Moriori culture, an emphasis on pacifism. proved disadvantageous when Māori warriors arrived in the 1830s aboard a chartered European ship. [ 7 ]

In the early 18th century, Ngāi Tahu a Māori tribe who originated on the east coast of the North Island began migrating to the northern part of the South Island. There they and Kāti Mamoe fought Ngāi Tara and Rangitāne in the Wairau Valley. Ngāti Māmoe then ceded the east coast regions north of the Clarence River to Ngāi Tahu.

Ngāi Tahu continued to push south, conquering Kaikoura. By the 1730s, Ngāi Tahu had settled in Canterbury. including Banks Peninsula. From there they spread further south and into the West Coast. [ 8 ]

In 1827-1828 Ngāti Toa under the leadership of Te Rauparaha successfully attacked Ngāi Tahu at Kaikoura. Ngāti Toa then visited Kaiapoi. ostensibly to trade. When they attacked their hosts, the well-prepared Ngāi Tahu killed all the leading Ngāti Toa chiefs except Te Rauparaha.

Te Rauparaha returned to his Kapiti Island stronghold. In November 1830 Te Rauparaha persuaded Captain John Stewart of the brig Elizabeth to carry him and his warriors in secret to Akaroa. where by subterfuge they captured the leading Ngāi Tahu chief, Te Maiharanui, and his wife and daughter. After destroying Te Maiharanui’s village they took their captives to Kapiti and killed them. John Stewart, though arrested and sent to trial in Sydney as an accomplice to murder, nevertheless escaped conviction. [ 8 ]

In the summer of 1831–32 Te Rauparaha attacked the Kaiapoi pā (fortified village). After a three-month siege, a fire in the pā allowed Ngāti Toa to overcome it. They then attacked Ngāi Tahu on Banks Peninsula and took the pā at Onawe.

In 1832-33 Ngāi Tahu retaliated under the leadership of Tuhawaiki and others, attacking Ngāti Toa at Lake Grassmere. Ngāi Tahu prevailed, and killed many Ngāti Toa, although Te Rauparaha again escaped. Fighting continued for a year or so, with Ngāi Tahu maintaining the upper hand. Ngāti Toa never again made a major incursion into Ngāi Tahu territory. [ 8 ] By 1839 Ngāi Tahu and Ngāti Toa established peace and Te Rauparaha released the Ngāi Tahu captives he held.

Formal marriages between the leading families in the two tribes sealed the peace.

European discovery [ edit ]

The first Europeans known to reach the South Island were the crew of Dutch explorer Abel Tasman who arrived in his ships Heemskerck and Zeehaen . In December 1642, Tasman anchored at the northern end of the island in Golden Bay which he named Moordenaar’s Bay (Murderers Bay) before sailing northward to Tonga following a clash with Māori. Tasman sketched sections of the two main islands’ west coasts.

Tasman called them Staten Landt . after the States-General of the Netherlands . and that name appeared on his first maps of the country. Dutch cartographers changed the name to Nova Zeelandia in Latin, from Nieuw Zeeland . after the Dutch province of Zeeland . It was subsequently Anglicised as New Zealand by British naval captain James Cook of HM Bark Endeavour who visited the islands more than 100 years after Tasman during (1769–1770).

The first European settlement in the South Island was founded at Bluff in 1823 by James Spencer, a veteran of the Battle of Waterloo. [ 9 ]

In January 1827, the French explorer Jules Dumont d’Urville arrived in Tasman Bay on the corvette Astrolabe. A number of landmarks around Tasman Bay were named by d’Urville and his crew including d’Urville Island. French Pass and Torrent Bay. [ 10 ]

European settlement [ edit ]

When Britain annexed New Zealand in 1840, the South Island briefly became a part of New South Wales. [ 11 ] This annexation was in response to France’s attempts to colonise the South Island at Akaroa [ 12 ] and the New Zealand Company attempts to establish a separate colony in Wellington. and so Lieutenant-Governor William Hobson declared British sovereignty over all of New Zealand on 21 May 1840 (the North Island by treaty and the South by discovery). [ 13 ]

On 17 June 1843, Māori natives and the British settlers clashed at Wairau in what became known as the Wairau Affray. Also known as the Wairau Massacre in most older texts, it was the first serious clash of arms between the two parties after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi and the only one to take place in the South Island. Four Māori died and three were wounded in the incident, while among the Europeans the toll was 22 dead and five wounded. Twelve of the Europeans were shot dead or clubbed to death after surrendering to Māori who were pursuing them. [ 14 ]

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The Otago Settlement, sponsored by the Free Church of Scotland. took concrete form in Otago in March 1848 with the arrival of the first two immigrant ships from Greenock (on the Firth of Clyde ) — the John Wickliffe and the Philip Laing . Captain William Cargill. a veteran of the Peninsular War. served as the colony’s first leader. Otago citizens subsequently elected him to the office of Superintendent of the Province of Otago .

While the North Island was convulsed by the Land Wars of the 1860s and 1870s, the South Island, with its low Māori population, was generally peaceful. In 1861 gold was discovered at Gabriel’s Gully in Central Otago. sparking a gold rush. Dunedin became the wealthiest city in the country and many in the South Island resented financing the North Island’s wars.

In 1865 Parliament voted on a Bill to make the South Island independent: it was defeated 17 to 31.

In the 1860s, several thousand Chinese men, mostly from the Guangdong province, migrated to New Zealand to work on the South Island goldfields. Although the first Chinese migrants had been invited by the Otago Provincial government they quickly became the target of hostility from white settlers and laws were enacted specifically to discourage them from coming to New Zealand. [ 15 ]

2010–2011 earthquakes [ edit ]

An earthquake with magnitude 7.1 occurred in the South Island, New Zealand at Saturday 04:35#160;am local time, 4 September 2010 (16:35 UTC, 3 September 2010). [ 16 ] The earthquake occurred at a depth of 10 kilometres (6.2#160;mi), and there were no fatalities.

The epicentre was located 40 kilometres (25#160;mi) west of Christchurch; 10 kilometres (6.2#160;mi) south-east of Darfield ; [ 17 ] 190 kilometres (120#160;mi) south-southeast of Westport; 295 kilometres (183#160;mi) south-west of Wellington; and 320 kilometres (200#160;mi) north-northeast of Dunedin.

Building damage in Worcester Street, corner Manchester Street, with ChristChurch Cathedral in the background. (September 2010)

Sewers were damaged, [ 18 ] gas and water lines were broken, and power to up to 75% of the city was disrupted. [ 19 ] Among the facilities impacted by lack of power was the Christchurch Hospital. which was forced to use emergency generators in the immediate aftermath of the quake. [ 19 ]

A local state of emergency was declared at 10:16#160;am on 4 September for the city, and evacuations of parts were planned to begin later in the day. [ 20 ] People inside the Christchurch city centre were evacuated, and the city’s central business district remained closed until 5 September. [ 21 ] A curfew from 7#160;pm on 4 September to 7#160;am on 5 September was put in place. [ 22 ] The New Zealand Army was also deployed to assist police and enforce the curfew. All schools were closed until 8 September so they could be checked.

Christchurch International Airport was closed following the earthquake and flights in and out of it cancelled. It reopened at 1:30#160;pm following inspection of the main runway. [ 23 ]

The earthquake was reported to have caused widespread damage and power outages. 63 aftershocks were also reported in the first 48 hours with three registering 5.2 magnitude. Christchurch residents reported chimneys falling in through roofs, cracked ceilings and collapsed brick walls. [ 24 ] The total insurance costs of this event were estimated to reach up to $11#160;billion according to the New Zealand Treasury. [ 25 ] [ 26 ]

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