South Island – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

28 Apr 2015 | Author: | Comments Off on South Island – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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South Island

The South or Te Waipounamu is the larger of the two major of New Zealand. the other being the populous North Island. It is to the north by Cook Strait. to the by the Tasman Sea. to the south and by the Pacific Ocean. The South covers 150,437 square (58,084#160;sq#160;mi) [ 1 ] and is influenced by a temperate .

History [ edit ]

Pre-history [ ]

Charcoal drawings can be found on rock shelters in the centre of the Island, with over 500 [ 3 ] stretching from Kaikoura to Otago. The drawings are estimated to be 500 and 800 years old, and portray people and fantastic creatures, stylised reptiles. [ 4 ] Some of the pictured are long extinct, moa and Haast’s eagles. They drawn by early Māori, but by the Europeans arrived, local did not know the origins of the drawings. [ 5 ]

Māori period [ edit ]

inhabitants of the South Island the Waitaha. They were absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Mamoe in the 16th century. [ needed ]

Ngāti Mamoe in turn largely absorbed via and conquest by the Ngāi Tahu who south in the 17th century. [ 6 ] today there is no distinct Mamoe organisation, many Tahu have Ngati links in their whakapapa especially in the far south of the island.

Around the same time a of Māori migrated to Rekohu Chatham Islands ), where, by to the local climate and the availability of they developed a culture as Moriori — related to but distinct Māori culture in mainland New A notable feature of the Moriori an emphasis on pacifism. proved when Māori warriors in the 1830s aboard a chartered ship. [ 7 ]

In the early 18th Ngāi Tahu a Māori who originated on the east coast of the Island began migrating to the part of the South Island. they and Kāti Mamoe Ngāi Tara and Rangitāne in the Valley. Ngāti Māmoe ceded the east coast north of the Clarence River to Tahu.

Ngāi Tahu to push south, conquering By the 1730s, Ngāi Tahu had in Canterbury. including Banks From there they further south and into the Coast. [ 8 ]

In 1827-1828 Ngāti Toa the leadership of Te Rauparaha successfully Ngāi Tahu at Kaikoura. Toa then visited Kaiapoi. to trade. When they their hosts, the well-prepared Tahu … all the leading Toa chiefs except Te Rauparaha.

Te returned to his Kapiti Island In November 1830 Te Rauparaha Captain John Stewart of the Elizabeth to carry him and his warriors in to Akaroa. where by subterfuge captured the leading Ngāi chief, Te Maiharanui, and his wife and After destroying Te Maiharanui’s they took their to Kapiti and … them. Stewart, though arrested and to trial in Sydney as an accomplice to nevertheless escaped conviction. [ 8 ]

In the summer of 1831–32 Te Rauparaha the Kaiapoi pā (fortified village). a three-month siege, a fire in the pā Ngāti Toa to overcome it. They attacked Ngāi Tahu on Peninsula and took the pā at Onawe.

In Ngāi Tahu retaliated the leadership of Tuhawaiki and others, Ngāti Toa at Lake Grassmere. Tahu prevailed, and … Ngāti Toa, although Te again escaped. Fighting for a year or so, with Ngāi maintaining the upper hand. Toa never again made a incursion into Ngāi territory. [ 8 ] By 1839 Ngāi and Ngāti Toa established peace and Te released the Ngāi Tahu he held.

Formal marriages the leading families in the two tribes the peace.

European discovery [ ]

The first Europeans known to the South Island were the of Dutch explorer Abel who arrived in his ships Heemskerck and . In December 1642, Tasman at the northern end of the island in Golden Bay he named Moordenaar’s Bay (Murderers before sailing northward to following a clash with Tasman sketched sections of the two islands’ west coasts.

Tasman called them Landt . after the States-General of the . and that name appeared on his maps of the country. Dutch changed the name to Nova in Latin, from Nieuw . after the Dutch province of . It was subsequently Anglicised as New Zealand by naval captain James of HM Bark Endeavour who visited the more than 100 years Tasman during (1769–1770).

The European settlement in the South was founded at Bluff in 1823 by Spencer, a veteran of the Battle of [ 9 ]

In January 1827, the French Jules Dumont d’Urville in Tasman Bay on the corvette Astrolabe. A of landmarks around Tasman Bay named by d’Urville and his crew d’Urville Island. French and Torrent Bay. [ 10 ]

European [ edit ]

When Britain New Zealand in 1840, the South briefly became a part of New Wales. [ 11 ] This annexation was in to France’s attempts to colonise the Island at Akaroa [ 12 ] and the New Zealand attempts to establish a separate in Wellington. and so Lieutenant-Governor William declared British sovereignty all of New Zealand on 21 May 1840 (the Island by treaty and the South by [ 13 ]

On 17 June 1843, Māori and the British settlers clashed at in what became known as the Affray. Also known as the Massacre in most older it was the first serious clash of between the two parties after the of the Treaty of Waitangi and the only one to place in the South Island. Māori died and three wounded in the incident, while the Europeans the toll was 22 … and wounded. Twelve of the Europeans shot … or clubbed to after surrendering to Māori who pursuing them. [ 14 ]

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The Otago sponsored by the Free Church of took concrete form in in March 1848 with the of the first two immigrant ships Greenock (on the Firth of Clyde ) — the Wickliffe and the Philip Laing . William Cargill. a veteran of the War. served as the colony’s leader. Otago citizens elected him to the office of Superintendent of the of Otago .

While the North was convulsed by the Land Wars of the and 1870s, the South Island, its low Māori population, was generally In 1861 gold was discovered at Gully in Central Otago. a gold rush. Dunedin the wealthiest city in the country and in the South Island resented the North Island’s wars.

In 1865 Parliament voted on a to make the South Island it was defeated 17 to 31.

In the 1860s, several Chinese men, mostly the Guangdong province, migrated to New to work on the South Island Although the first Chinese had been invited by the Otago government they quickly the target of hostility from settlers and laws were specifically to discourage them coming to New Zealand. [ 15 ]

2010–2011 [ edit ]

An earthquake with 7.1 occurred in the South Island, New at Saturday 04:35#160;am local 4 September 2010 (16:35 3 September 2010). [ 16 ] The earthquake at a depth of 10 kilometres (6.2#160;mi), and were no fatalities.

The epicentre was 40 kilometres (25#160;mi) west of 10 kilometres (6.2#160;mi) south-east of ; [ 17 ] 190 kilometres (120#160;mi) south-southeast of 295 kilometres (183#160;mi) south-west of and 320 kilometres (200#160;mi) north-northeast of

Building damage in Worcester corner Manchester Street, ChristChurch Cathedral in the background. 2010)

Sewers were [ 18 ] gas and water lines were and power to up to 75% of the city was disrupted. [ 19 ] the facilities impacted by lack of was the Christchurch Hospital. which was to use emergency generators in the immediate of the quake. [ 19 ]

A local state of emergency was at 10:16#160;am on 4 September for the city, and of parts were planned to later in the day. [ 20 ] People the Christchurch city centre evacuated, and the city’s central district remained closed 5 September. [ 21 ] A curfew from on 4 September to 7#160;am on 5 September was put in [ 22 ] The New Zealand Army was also to assist police and enforce the All schools were closed 8 September so they could be

Christchurch International Airport was following the earthquake and flights in and out of it It reopened at 1:30#160;pm following of the main runway. [ 23 ]

The earthquake was to have caused widespread and power outages. 63 aftershocks also reported in the first 48 with three registering 5.2 Christchurch residents reported falling in through roofs, ceilings and collapsed brick [ 24 ] The total insurance costs of event were estimated to up to $11#160;billion according to the New Zealand [ 25 ] [ 26 ]

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