Smart Materials and Structures – IOPscience

4 Jul 2014 | Author: | Comments Off on Smart Materials and Structures – IOPscience


Smart

Materials and Structures

0964-1726 (Print)

ISSN (Online)

Smart Materials and is dedicated to technical advances in materials, systems and structures, materials, sensing and actuation, and electromagnetics, structures, control and processing.

Editorial news

The of power harvesting has experienced growth over the past few due to the ever-increasing desire to produce and wireless electronics with lifespans. Current portable and devices must be designed to electrochemical batteries as the power The use of batteries can be troublesome due to their lifespan, thus necessitating periodic replacement.

In the case of sensors that are to be placed in locations, the sensor must be accessible or of a disposable nature to the device to function over periods of time. Energy devices are designed to capture the energy surrounding the electronics and it into usable electrical The concept of power harvesting towards developing self-powered that do not require replaceable supplies.

A number of sources of ambient energy exist, waste heat, vibration, waves, wind, flowing and solar energy. While of these sources of energy can be used to power remote the structural and biological communities placed an emphasis on scavenging energy with piezoelectric This article will recent literature in the field of harvesting and present the current of power harvesting in its drive to completely self-powered devices.

One-step dual-shape memory (SMPs) recover their (permanent) shape upon variation of environmental conditions as temperature, electric field, magnetic field, and solvent/chemicals. For applications such as aerospace and devices, complicated, multiple-step, controllable, and two-way shape effects (SMEs) are required.

In the decade, researchers have great effort to improve the of the SME of SMPs to meet the needs of applications. This paper is to review the up-to-date research on advanced SMEs. The problems the various SMPs are discussed.

The and opportunities for future research are

Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are for semi-active vibration control of dynamic systems. In the current MR systems, a separate power and dynamic sensor are required. To the MR damper to be self-powered and self-sensing in the in this paper we propose and a self-sensing MR damper with generation, which integrates harvesting, dynamic sensing and MR technologies into one device.

MR damper has self-contained power and velocity sensing capabilities, and is to various dynamic systems. It the advantages of energy harvestingreusing energy, MR dampingcontrollable damping and sensingproviding dynamic information for system dynamics.

This multifunctional integration bring great benefits as energy saving, size and reduction, lower cost, reliability, and less maintenance for the MR systems. In this paper, a of the self-sensing MR damper with generation was designed, fabricated, and Theoretical analyses and experimental on power generation were A velocity-sensing method was proposed and validated.

The magnetic-field interference three functions was prevented by a magnetic-field isolation method. analysis, and experimental results on forces are also presented.

A many living beings, as aquatics and arthropods, are equipped highly sensitive flow to help them survive in environments. These sensors are sources of inspiration for developing artificial flow sensors high sensitivity and performance. paper reviews the bio-inspirations on sensing in nature and the bio-mimicking to emulate such sensing in recent years.

The natural sensing systems in aquatics and are reviewed to highlight inspirations at levels such as morphology, mechanism and information processing. hair flow sensors on different sensing mechanisms and technologies are also reviewed to the recent accomplishments and to point out where further progress is Biomimetic flow sensors are in their early stages.

Further efforts are required to the sensing mechanisms in the natural systems and to achieve multi-level of the natural system to develop artificial counterparts.

Stimuli-responsive (SRPs) are smart materials can show noticeable changes in properties with environmental variations. Novel functionalities can be to textiles by integrating smart into them.

SRPs of thermal-responsive polymers, moisture-responsive thermal-responsive hydrogels, pH-responsive and light-responsive polymers have applied in textiles to improve or textile smart functionalities. The include aesthetic appeal, textile soft display, controlled drug release, design with color wound monitoring, smart properties and protection against variations in environmental conditions. In review, the applications of SRPs in the and clothing sector are elucidated; the constraints in fabrication processes for and their potential applications in the future are discussed.

The investigation of the of vibrational energy into power has become a major of research. In recent years, energy harvesting devices attracted significant attention due to of their unique features. a snap-through action, bistable transition from one stable to the other, which could large amplitude motion and increase power generation.

Due to their nonlinear characteristics, devices may be effective across a bandwidth. Consequently, a rapid of research has been undertaken to bistable electromechanical dynamics and to the insight for the development of improved This paper reviews, and reports on the major efforts and documented in the literature.

A common framework for bistable electromechanical is presented, the principal results are the wide variety of bistable harvesters are described, and some challenges and proposed solutions are

The reduced power requirements of electronics offer the opportunity to devices which rely on harvesters for their power In the case of wearable devices, piezoelectric energy harvesting is difficult due to the mismatch between the low of human activities and the high-frequency of piezoelectric transducers.

We propose a energy harvester, to be worn on the that relies on the plucking to achieve frequency up-conversion. a plucking action, a piezoelectric is deflected by a plectrum; when due to loss of contact, the bimorph is to vibrate at its resonant frequency, electrical energy with the efficiency.

A prototype, featuring PZT-5H bimorphs, was built and is studied in a knee simulator reproduces the gait of a human Biomechanical data were with a marker-based motion system while the subject was a selection of backpack loads. The focuses on the energy generation of the and how this is affected by the backpack

By altering the gait, the backpack has a measurable effect on performance: at the load of 24 kg, a minor reduction in generation (7%) was observed and the power is reduced by 10%. are so moderate to be practically unimportant. The power output of the prototype is ± 0.3 mW, which can increase with further optimization.

In paper, a procedure for fabricating and a seamless spherical dielectric actuator (DEA) is presented. In developed spherical prototypes, the DEA is pre-strained by a rigid frame to the actuator’s output force; it is possible to pre-strain a spherical DEA by the sample with a liquid or gas as as the sample contains the pressure.

In work, a very compliant material was used to fabricate a spherical balloon-shaped prototype. The DEA was inflated by air and various electrical-actuation were considered. The performance of the DEA was studied using an analytical and a element-based model. An Ogden model was used in formulation of the model to include nonlinear of the silicone material.

Full statistical analysis of the and numerical results was carried out the root-mean-square (RMS) error and the RMS error. The analytical and FEM results in good agreement with the data. According to modeling it was found that the DEA’s force can be mainly improved by the voltage, reducing the thickness, the stiffness, and/or increasing the pressure.

As an example, a three-fold of the actuation force was found the thickness was reduced to half of its value. This improvement of the suggests that the spherical DEA is for use in several applications if an appropriate with optimal governing is developed.

We report the creation of a low rate sensor from micro-hairs. The hairs are printed as depositions using a nanopositioning The printing technique was developed for structures in 2D and 3D. Here micro-hairs diameters of 4.4 μm were extruded with constant

These hairs were applied to produce a prototype rate sensor, which was to detect flows of 3.5 l min −1. analysis was performed to demonstrate the design can be modified to potentially flows as low as 0.5 l min −1. The results are to propose a practical digital rate sensor.

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