Forest Certification: From the Woods to the Mills & Beyond (State of Alabama) –

4 May 2015 | Author: | Comments Off on Forest Certification: From the Woods to the Mills & Beyond (State of Alabama) –
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History [link]


Indigenous peoples, early [link]

Mount Cheaha. highest point

Indigenous of varying cultures lived in the for thousands of years before colonization. Trade with the via the Ohio River began the Burial Mound Period and continued until European [ 16 ] The agrarian Mississippian culture most of the state from AD to 1600, with one of its major being at the Moundville Archaeological in Moundville, Alabama. [ 17 ] [ 18 ] Analysis of recovered from archaeological at Moundville were the basis of formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Complex (SECC). [ 19 ] Contrary to belief, the SECC appears to no direct links to Mesoamerican but developed independently. The Ceremonial represents a major component of the of the Mississippian peoples; it is one of the primary by which their religion is [ 20 ]

Among the historical tribes of American people living in the of present-day Alabama at the time of contact were Iroquoian Cherokee. and the Muskogean -speaking ( Alibamu ), Chickasaw. Choctaw. Koasati. and Mobile. [ 21 ]

European [link]

The French founded the European settlement in the region at Old in 1702. [ 22 ] The area was French 1702 to 1763; part of West Florida from to 1780. Thomas Bassett was the British settler in the state.

He settled near what is now River in Washington County. [ 23 ] became part of Spanish Florida from 1780 to part of the independent Republic of Florida for a short time (90 annexed by the U.S. and added to the of Orleans (1810); and, added to the Mississippi Territory in Throughout these later however, the Spanish had kept a (although largely ignored) presence in the region, based out of When Andrew Jackson forces occupied Mobile in —while preparing for the Battle of New —he demonstrated the United States’ de authority over the region, ending Spanish governance not its claim), while gaining an passage to the gulf. [ 24 ]

The area up today’s northern and central known as the Yazoo lands. had claimed by the Province of Georgia 1767. Following the Revolutionary it remained a part of the state of —although heavily disputed. claims to the area were first by several Native tribes (most notably the and Yazoo ), by other states South Carolina ); and by the US federal ; Britain and Spain.

In 1802, the was joined to the Mississippi Territory. statehood was delayed, however, by the lack of a coastline. [ citation ]

Statehood, Civil War, and [link]

Old Alabama state ruins at Capital Park in

Alabama was admitted to the Union in as the 22nd state. Part of the in the 1820s and 1830s, its constitution for universal suffrage for white Settlers rapidly arrived to advantage of the fertile soil. planters and traders from the South brought slaves them as the cotton plantations

The economy of the central Black (named for its dark, productive was built around large plantations whose owners’ grew largely from labor. [ 25 ] The area also many poor, disfranchised who became subsistence farmers. The census records show enslaved Africans comprised 45% of the total population of 964,201. were only 2,690 persons of color living in at the time.

From 1826 to Tuscaloosa served as the capital of On January 30, 1846, the Alabama announced that it had voted to the capital city from to Montgomery. The first legislative in the new capital met in December 1847. In a Capitol building was erected the direction of a Philadelphia.

Pennsylvania The original structure burnt in 1849 but was rebuilt in 1851 the original plans. [ 26 ]

On January 11, Alabama declared its secession the Union and joined the Confederate of America. While few battles fought in the state, Alabama about 120,000#160;soldiers to the American War. Alabama’s slaves freed by the 13th#160;Amendment in 1865. [ 27 ] Reconstruction. the new state legislators a public school system for the time, as well as establishing welfare institutions to help its

Alabama was officially restored to the in 1868.

After the Civil the state was still chiefly with an economy tied to Planters resisted working free labor during and sought to re-establish controls freedmen. In the early years the Ku Klan had numerous independent in Alabama that attacked and other Republicans. After it was insurgent whites organized groups, such as the Red Shirts and League. that acted openly to suppress black

Regaining power by the late in the last decade of the 19th white Democrats passed laws disfranchise most and many poor whites. [ 28 ] regained power in the state Democrats passed Jim Crow including racial segregation in facilities, to restore white in the society.

In 1875, the state the Blaine Amendment. to prohibit money from being to finance Catholic schools. [ 29 ]


The new 1901 Constitution of effectively disfranchised African and many poor whites voting restrictions, including requirements. While the planter had persuaded poor whites to these legislative efforts, the new resulted in disfranchising poor as well, due mostly to imposition of a poll tax .

In 1900, 14 Black counties had more than voters on the rolls. [ clarification ] By June 1, 1903, the number of [ needed ] registered voters had to 1,081. In 1900, Alabama had than 181,000 African eligible to vote. By 1903, 2,980 had qualified to register, at least 74,000 black were literate. [ 30 ]

By 1941, a total of more than blacks had been 600,000 whites to 520,000 [ 30 ] Nearly all African Americans the ability to vote.

The disfranchisement was by African Americans’ leading the Rights Movement and gaining legislation in the mid-1960s to protect voting and civil rights. The Rights Act of 1965 also the suffrage of poor whites.

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The Alabama legislature consistently schools and services for the disfranchised Americans in the segregated state, but did not them of paying taxes. [ 25 ] racial discrimination, agricultural and the failure of the cotton crops due to weevil infestation led tens of of African Americans to seek in northern cities. They Alabama in the early 20th#160;century as of the Great Migration to industrial and better futures in northern cities. The population growth in Alabama (see Historical table below) dropped by half from 1910 to reflecting the effect of emigration.

At the time, many rural and blacks migrated to the city of for work in new industrial jobs. It such rapid growth it was nicknamed The Magic City. By the Birmingham was the 19th#160;largest city in the and held more than 30% of the of the state. Heavy industry and were the basis of the economy. [ 31 ]

This structure greets visiting the Alabama Welcome just inside the AL/GA off of Interstate 20 .

Industrial development to the demands of World War II brought [ 25 ] Cotton faded in importance as the developed a manufacturing and service In the 1960s under Governor Wallace. many whites in the opposed federal integration in schools and public facilities.


Despite massive changes in the state from to 1961, the rural-dominated legislature to reapportion House and Senate based on population. They on to old representation to maintain political and power in agricultural areas. In the state legislature gerrymandered the few legislative seats to ensure by persons living outside

One result was that Jefferson containing Birmingham’s industrial and powerhouse, contributed more one-third of all tax revenue to the state, but did not a proportional amount in services. interests were consistently in the legislature. A 1960 study that because of rural A minority of about 25 per cent of the state population is in majority of the Alabama legislature. [ 6 ]

African were presumed partial to for historical reasons, but they disfranchised. White Alabamans bitter towards the Republican in the aftermath of the Civil War and Reconstruction. factors created a longstanding that any candidate who wanted to be with white voters had to run as a regardless of political beliefs.

During the Civil Rights African Americans achieved a of voting and other civil through the passage of the national Rights Act of 1964. [ 32 ] and the Voting Act of 1965. De jure segregation in the states as Jim Crow laws invalidated or repealed. [ 33 ]

Under the Rights Act of 1965, cases filed in Federal courts to Alabama to redistrict by population the House and Senate of the state

In 1972, for the first time 1901, the legislature implemented the constitution’s provision for periodic based on population. This the urban areas that had as well as all in the population who had been for more than 60#160;years. [ 6 ]

1972, the state’s white shifted much of their to Republican candidates in presidential (as also occurred in neighboring states). Since 1990 the of whites in the state have increasingly Republican in state In 2010, Republicans won control of houses of the legislature for the first in 136 years. [ 34 ]

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