Ethiopia Steps Up Education Budget to Over 25 Billion Birr –

15 Jan 2015 | Author: | Comments Off on Ethiopia Steps Up Education Budget to Over 25 Billion Birr –


Ethiopia ( #160; / ˌ iː θ i ˈ oʊ p i ə / ) (Ge’ez. ኢትዮጵያ ʾĪtyōṗṗyā ), officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia . is a landlocked country located in the Horn of Africa. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa. with over 82 million inhabitants, [ 3 ] and the tenth largest by area, occupying 1,100,000#160;km 2. Ethiopia is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. With its capital at Addis Ababa. it is also the most populous landlocked nation in the world.

Ethiopia was a monarchy for most of its history, and the Ethiopian dynasty traces its roots to the 2nd century BC. [ 5 ] Ethiopia is also one of the oldest sites of human existence known to scientists today, having yielded some of humanity’s oldest traces. [ 6 ] It may be the region from which Homo sapiens first set out for the Middle East and points beyond. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] Alongside Rome, Persia, China and India [ 10 ]. the Ethiopian Aksum Empire was considered one of the great world powers of the 3rd century. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] [ 13 ] During the Scramble for Africa.

Ethiopia was the only African country beside Liberia that retained its sovereignty as a recognized independent country, and was one of only four African members of the League of Nations. After a brief period of Italian occupation. Ethiopia became a charter member of the United Nations.

When other African nations received their independence following World War II. many of them adopted the colors of Ethiopia’s flag. and Addis Ababa became the location of several international organizations focused on Africa.

Modern Ethiopia and its current borders are a result of significant territorial reduction in the north and expansion in the south toward its present borders, owing to several migrations and commercial integration as well as conquests, particularly by Emperor Menelik II and Ras Gobena. In 1974, the dynasty led by Haile Selassie was overthrown as civil wars intensified. Since then, Ethiopia has seen a variety of governmental systems.

Ethiopia is one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), G-77 and the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). Today, Addis Ababa is still the headquarters of the African Union. the Pan African Chamber of Commerce (PACCI) and [ 14 ] UNECA. The country has one of the most powerful militaries in Africa and Addis Ababa is the headquarters of the continental African Standby Force (ASF).

Ethiopia is the only African country where an indigenous alphabet is still widely used. [ 15 ] Ethiopia also has its own time system and unique calendar, seven to eight years behind the Gregorian calendar. It has the largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa. [ 16 ]

The country is a land of natural contrasts, with waterfalls and volcanic hot springs. Ethiopia has some of Africa’s highest mountains as well as some of the world’s lowest points below sea level. The largest cave in Africa is located in Ethiopia at Sof Omar.

Ethiopia has one of the largest number of rivers in the world while the country’s northernmost area at Dallol, Afar is the hottest place year-round anywhere on Earth. Ethiopia is a multilingual. multicultural and multiethnic society of around 80 groups, with the two largest being the Oromo and the Amhara. both of which speak Afro-Asiatic languages.

The country is also famous for its Olympic gold medallists in running, rock-hewn churches in Lalibela, and as the place where the coffee bean originated. Currently, Ethiopia is the top coffee and honey-producing country in Africa, and home to the largest livestock population in Africa.

The Ethiopian Aksum region was the first major empire in the world to convert to Christianity and it was one of the first countries to officially adopt Christianity as a state religion in the 4th century. [ 13 ] Ethiopia has a Christian majority and a third of the population is Muslim. Ethiopia is the site of the first Hijra in Islamic history and the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa at Negash. Until the 1980s, a substantial population of Ethiopian Jews resided in Ethiopia. The country is also the spiritual homeland of the Rastafari religious movement .

Ethiopia, which has Africa’s second biggest hydropower potential, [ 17 ] is the source of over 85% of the total Nile water flow and contains rich soils, but it nevertheless underwent a series of famines in the 1980s, exacerbated by adverse geopolitics and civil wars, resulting in the death of hundreds of thousands. [ 18 ] Slowly, however, the country has begun to recover, and today Ethiopia has the biggest economy by GDP in East Africa and Central Africa. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ] as the Ethiopian economy is also one of the fastest growing in the world. It is a regional powerhouse in the Horn and east Africa. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ] [ 25 ] [ 26 ] Recently, human rights abuses have been reported in Ethiopia under Premier Meles Zenawi despite the country becoming a leading economic, diplomatic and political force in Africa. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] [ 29 ]


Names [link]

The Greek name Αἰθιοπία (from Αἰθίοψ. Aithiops . ‘an Ethiopian’) appears twice in the Iliad and three times in the Odyssey . [ 30 ] The Greek historian Herodotus specifically uses it for all the lands south of Egypt, [ 31 ] including Sudan and modern Ethiopia.

Pliny the Elder says the country’s name comes from a son of Hephaestus (aka Vulcan) named Aethiops . [ 32 ] Similarly, in the 15th century Ge’ez Book of Aksum . the name is ascribed to a legendary individual called Ityopp’is . an extrabiblical son of Cush, son of Ham. said to have founded the city of Axum. In addition to this Cushite figure, two of the earliest Semitic kings are also said to have born the name Ityopp’is according to traditional Ethiopian king lists. Modern European scholars beginning c. 1600 [ 33 ] have considered the name to be derived from the Greek words aitho I burn + ops face. [ 34 ] [ 35 ]

The name Ethiopia also occurs in many translations of the Old Testament, but the Hebrew texts have Kush . which refers foremost to Nubia / Sudan. [ 36 ] In the (Greek) New Testament, however, the Greek term Aithiops, ‘an Ethiopian’, does occur, [ 37 ] referring to a servant of Candace or Kentakes . possibly an inhabitant of Meroe which was later conquered and destroyed by the Kingdom of Axum. The earliest attested use of the name Ityopya in the region itself is as a name for the Kingdom of Aksum in the 4th century, in stone inscriptions of King Ezana. [ 38 ] who first Christianized the entire apparatus of the kingdom.

In English, and generally outside Ethiopia, the country was also once historically known as Abyssinia . derived from Habesh . an early Arabic form of the Ethiosemitic name Ḥabaśāt (unvocalized ḤBŚT). The modern form Habesha is the native name for the country’s inhabitants (while the country has been called Ityopp’ya). In a few languages, Ethiopia is still referred to by names cognate with Abyssinia, e.g. modern Arabic Al-Ḥabashah . meaning land of the Habasha people. [ citation needed ]

The term Habesha . strictly speaking, refers only to the Semitic-speaking groups, particularly the Amhara and Tigray-Tigrinya people who have historically dominated the country politically, as well as the Gurage and other smaller communities like the Harari of eastern Ethiopia. However, in contemporary Ethiopia, the word Habesha is sometimes used to describe all people from Ethiopians and Eritreans. [ dubious – discuss ] Abyssinia can strictly refer to just the northwestern Ethiopian provinces of Amhara and Tigray. as well as central Eritrea. while it was historically used as another name for Ethiopia. [ 39 ]

History [link]

Prehistory [link]

East Africa, and more specifically the general area of Ethiopia, is widely considered the site of the emergence of early Homo sapiens in the Middle Paleolithic 400,000 years ago. Homo sapiens idaltu . found at site Middle Awash in Ethiopia, lived about 160,000 years ago. [ 40 ]

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