74 Afghan officials and MoF core staff participated the UNITAR Fellowship 2013 Hiroshima Japan (Ministry…

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Imperial period [link]

Map of Hiroshima City in 1930’s (Japanese edition)

After the han was abolished in 1871, the city became the capital of Hiroshima prefecture. Hiroshima became a major urban center during the imperial period as the Japanese economy shifted from primarily rural to urban industries.

During 1870s, one of the seven government-sponsored English language schools was established in Hiroshima. [ 6 ] Ujina Harbor was constructed through the efforts of Hiroshima Governor Sadaaki Senda in the 1880s, allowing Hiroshima to become an important port city.

The Sanyo Railway was extended to Hiroshima in 1894, and a rail line from the main station to the harbor was constructed for military transportation during the First Sino-Japanese War. [ 7 ] During that war, the Japanese government moved temporarily to Hiroshima, and Emperor Meiji maintained his headquarters at Hiroshima Castle from September 15, 1894 to April 27, 1895. [ 7 ] The significance of Hiroshima for the Japanese government can be discerned from the fact that the first round of talks between Chinese and Japanese representatives to end the Sino-Japanese War was held in Hiroshima from February 1 to February 4, 1895. [ 8 ] New industrial plants, including cotton mills. were established in Hiroshima in the late 19th century. [ 9 ] Further industrialization in Hiroshima was stimulated during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, which required development and production of military supplies. The Hiroshima Prefectural Commercial Exhibition Hall was constructed in 1915 as a center for trade and exhibition of new products. Later, its name was changed to Hiroshima Prefectural Product Exhibition Hall, and again to Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall. [ 10 ]

During the First World War. Hiroshima became a focal point of military activity, as the Japanese government entered the war on the Allied side. About 500 German prisoners of war were held in Ninoshima Island in Hiroshima Bay. [ 11 ]

The growth of Hiroshima as a city continued after the First World War, as the city now attracted the attention of the Catholic Church, and on May 4, 1923, an Apostolic Vicar was appointed for that city. [ 12 ]

Hiroshima after the bombing

During World War II. the Second Army and Chugoku Regional Army were headquartered in Hiroshima, and the Army Marine Headquarters was located at Ujina port. The city also had large depots of military supplies, and was a key center for shipping. [ 13 ]

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The bombing of Tokyo and other cities in Japan during World War II caused widespread destruction and hundreds of thousands of deaths. [ 14 ] For example, Toyama. an urban area of 128,000, was nearly fully destroyed, and incendiary attacks on Tokyo are believed to have claimed 90,000 lives. There were no such air raids in Hiroshima. However, the threat was certainly there and to protect against potential firebombings in Hiroshima, students (between 11–14 years) were mobilized to demolish houses and create firebreaks. [ 15 ]

On Monday, August 6, 1945, at 8:15 AM, the Atomic Bomb Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by an American B-29 bomber, the Enola Gay . [ 16 ] directly killing an estimated 80,000 people. By the end of the year, injury and radiation brought total casualties to 90,000–140,000. [ 17 ] Approximately 69% of the city’s buildings were completely destroyed, and another 7% severely damaged.

Research about the effects of the attack was restricted during the occupation of Japan. and information censored until the signing of the San Francisco Peace Treaty in 1951, restoring control to the Japanese. [ 18 ]

The oleander is the official flower of the city of Hiroshima because it was the first to bloom again after the explosion of the atomic bomb in 1945. [ citation needed ]

Postwar period [link]

In 1949, a design was selected for the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall, the closest surviving building to the location of the bomb’s detonation, was designated the Genbaku Dome (原爆ドーム) or Atomic Dome. a part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum was opened in 1955 in the Peace Park. [ 22 ]

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